Demanda penal contra Inditex por genocidio y crímenes de lesa humanidad

Madrid – Las presiones contra la compañía española Inditex para que se posicione abiertamente en el presente conflicto sobre el algodón de Xinjiang y los derechos humanos de los uigures se agudizan, después de que a finales de la pasada semana un colectivo formado por diferentes organizaciones no gubernamentales y una supuesta víctima de trabajos forzosos uigur presentasen una demanda penal contra la compañía en Francia.

A la luz de las informaciones que vienen sucediéndose desde hace ya varios años y que apuntan a la supuesta vulneración de los derechos humanos de la minoría de los uigures que se estaría llevando a cabo por parte del Gobierno chino, sobre el que se extiende la sospecha de estar empujando a la población perteneciente a esta minoría étnica a prácticas esclavistas y de trabajos forzosos en distintos sectores industriales, entre ellos a la recolección de algodón, las organizaciones Sherpa, el Collectif Éthique sur l’étiquette, el Instituto uigur europeo y una víctima uigur representada por el despacho legal Cabinet Bourdon & Associés, así como con el apoyo de varios eurodiputados, han presentado una demanda penal en el Tribunal Judicial de París contra el Grupo español Inditex, matriz de cadenas de moda tan conocidas como Zara, Bershka, Pull&Bear o Massimo Dutti, así como contra la compañía japonesa Uniqlo, la estadounidense Sketchers y el Grupo francés SMCP, matriz de las marcas Sandro, Maje, Claudie Pierlot y De Fursac.

Acusaciones de genocidio y de crímenes de lesa humanidad

Por el momento ninguno de estos Grupos multinacionales han emitido un comunicado oficial al respecto en el que entren a responder a la interposición de esta demanda penal, con la que desde las diferentes organizaciones los acusan de beneficiarse de los crímenes contra los derechos humanos que se estarían practicando contra el pueblo uigur por parte del régimen de Pekín. Atribuyéndoles en este sentido a las compañías señaladas los delitos de encubrimiento de trabajos forzosos y la práctica de unos crímenes de lesa humanidad en los que habrían, supuestamente, incurrido como consecuencia de la aceptación y la connivencia con esta serie de acciones dentro de sus respectivas cadenas de valor. Una tolerancia que las haría partícipes, así lo entienden los demandantes, de graves infracciones tanto éticas como penales, como las de los delitos de trata de seres humanos en forma de banda organizada o del de genocidio.

“Desde al menos 2019, periodistas e investigadores han denunciado la existencia de prácticas sistemáticas de trabajos forzosos en la Región Autónoma Uigur de Xinjiang por parte del gobierno chino”, una zona en la que “se produce casi el 20 por ciento del algodón del mundo”, explican desde el Collectif Éthique sur l’étiquette a través de un comunicado. “Sin embargo”, añaden, “con la información publicada hasta la fecha”, las compañías demandadas, “así como muchas otras empresas transnacionales”, habrían venido “continuando subcontratando parte de su producción” a grupos asentados en la zona de Xinjiang “o bien comercializando bienes a partir del algodón producido en esta región”, siendo como resultado “cómplices de los graves delitos que allí se cometen”.

Como consecuencia de estos hechos, apuntan desde la organización francesa, y “con el apoyo de varios eurodiputados”, incluido el francés Raphaël Glucksmann, “nuestras organizaciones han presentado esta denuncia con el fin de poder esclarecer el papel que desempeñan las empresas multinacionales dentro de los delitos cometidos contra el pueblo uigir”. Unas supuestas violaciones de los derechos humanos sobre las que ahora imperan a “los tribunales franceses” para que “se pronuncien sobre su posible responsabilidad penal”.

“Esta no es la primera vez que se presenta una denuncia sobre la responsabilidad de las multinacionales por una posible violación de los derechos humanos, pero sí la primera que se presenta por unos motivos tan graves”, explicaba Nayla Ajaltouni, coordinadora del Collectif Éthique sur l’étiquette, al medio de noticias francés France Inter. “Después de varios meses de interpelaciones internacionales y de presiones políticas, ya no se trata de informarles de los delitos de los que son cómplices por fines lucrativos”, añade, “ahora es el momento de presentar pruebas ante el juez para demostrar la responsabilidad penal de estas marcas”.

La primera de muchas demandas

Esta acción y el que haya eurodiputados como Glucksmann que han avalado y participado de la presentación de la demanda, hay que entenderlo como una consecuencia directa de los planes legislativos que vienen desarrollándose a nivel europea. Escenario en el que a lo largo de las últimas jornadas se han acelerado las acciones que conducirán a una mayor responsabilidad de las empresas con presencia en territorio comunitario hacia sus respectivas cadenas de valor.

En este sentido, y como principal causa además que se encontraría tras el reciente boicot que habrían auspiciado desde el propio Gobierno de Pekín contra la multinacional sueca H&M, parte de una estrategia de fuerza que ha terminado salpicando a otros grupos multinacionales, entre ellos también a Inditex, nos encontraríamos con el reciente texto probado por el Parlamento Europeo en materia de “diligencia debida” y de defensa de los derechos humanos y medioambientales por parte de las empresas. Una resolución que ya ha sido remitida a la Comisión Europea para su desarrollo, y sobre la que ahora esta demanda y sus impulsores buscaría ejercer presión con el fin de evitar que la norma termine diluyéndose frente a los intereses económicos que pudieran mostrar los grandes grupos multinacionales. Finalidad para la que desde Collectif Éthique sur l’étiquette ya adelantan que llevarán acciones similares a esta ante las instancias judiciales de distintos países.

“Es parte de los trabajos a largo plazo que llevan a cabo nuestras organizaciones en su lucha contra la impunidad de las empresas transnacionales y el buscar garantizar el acceso de las víctimas a la justicia y a su reparación”, añaden desde la organización francesa. “La directiva europea sobre el deber de vigilancia que se redactará en los próximos meses deberá de saber dar respuesta a estas cuestiones cruciales”. Un objetivo que perseguirán estos distintos colectivos de manera activa, entre otras acciones con la interposición de denuncias como esta. Una reclamación por vía judicial que llega avalada y que cuenta con el apoyo de organizaciones como el Centro Europeo de Derechos Constitucionales y Humanos ECCHR y el Congreso mundial uigur, y que no es más que “la primera de una serie de demandas que se interpondrán en otros países europeos en los próximos meses”.

“Nuestro objetivo”, detalla Ajaltouni, “es que esta directiva se inspire en las deficiencias de la legislación francesa y que vaya más allá”. Logrando contar “con un alcance más amplio, un régimen de responsabilidad civil aplicable a todas las empresas domiciliadas, basadas o con actividades comerciales en el mercado europeo”, y en la que además se lleve a cabo “una reversión de la carga de la prueba”. La cual, explica, “aún recae sobre la víctima de la violación de los derechos humanos en la legislación francesa”. Una normativa que, por ahora y a la espera de la aprobación de la nueva normativa europea, parece que será el que servirá de base para dirimir este conflicto.

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