Inditex.org o el mito de Amancio Ortega

Inditex, inescrupulosa máquina de generar pingües beneficios a bajo coste de prestigio, gracias a un ingenioso trabajo de lavado de imagen. Experta en evadir impuestos a cambio de gestos caritativos, su modelo es paradigma del selecto grupo de grandes fortunas españolas.

Durante la crisis del covid-19, mientras gran parte de las clases trabajadoras perdíamos nuestros empleos, sufrimos una merma de nuestro salario o tuvimos que echar el cierre a pequeños negocios que a duras penas nos dan para subsistir, una de las multinacionales con más beneficios del mundo anunciaba expedientes de regulación temporal de empleo y pérdidas de ganancia que en los volúmenes que maneja resultan insignificantes. Se nos pedía un esfuerzo, se nos decía que afectaba a todos por igual, pero unos veíamos imposible llegar a pagar las facturas del alquiler, la hipoteca, la luz y el agua, mientras otros eran aplaudidos por traer unas mascarillas que les negaban a sus trabajadores (los delegados del sindicato CIG, denunciaban que los trabajadores del centro logístico de Zara trabajaban sin equipos de protección mientras Jevaso, la empresa que se encargó de la logística por orden de Alfonso Rueda, vicepresidente de la Xunta, era denunciada por la Central Unitaria de Traballadoras-Cut a inspección de trabajo, por la misma causa).

Este es el penúltimo episodio de una historia con dos caras: la pública, la publicitaria, la de las donaciones y la otra la privada, la que afecta a miles de trabajadoras en todo el mundo, la de la precariedad y la represión, la de la ingeniería fiscal de SICAVs (Sociedad de Inversión de Capital Variable) y paraísos fiscales.

Si algo se le ha dado bien a este negocio ejemplar llamado Inditex es el doble juego entre ganar a costa de la salud y la explotación de los trabajadores y la imagen de ejemplaridad. Cuando no inviertes en anuncios comerciales tu publicidad viene por otro lado y eso es algo que siempre han cuidado muy bien. Desde que en 2001 deciden salir a bolsa han tratado de crear, a partir de su fundador, una historia muy bien contada de un hombre hecho a sí mismo a base de trabajo duro y generosidad, que reparte algo de su suerte con sus vecinos. No ha sido el primero ni el único cuentacuentos, de hecho, se ha convertido en un modelo de negocio, pero sí ha sido uno de los mejores en eso que llamamos filantrocapitalismo.

CAPITALISMO PREDATORIO, PERO CON FACHADA SOCIAL

En España, decir o hacer algo que pueda afectar mínimamente a la multinacional Inditex o al multimillonario Amancio Ortega supone que se te eche encima todo el aparato mediático y gran parte de la ciudadanía con acusaciones tan peregrinas como absurdas. Y es que la política de marketing, adoptada por Inditex es a su vez inteligente y efectiva.

La fórmula dominante en la producción y consumo de ropa, ha convertido a la industria en éxito de ventas, pero también en una de las más contaminantes e insalubres

Todo lo que lleva el sello de la compañía está pensado como herramienta publicitaria, desde la sede central que cuenta con gimnasio, catering de comida ecológica a precios irrisorios para la plantilla, transporte gratuito y amplias zonas verdes, hasta el diseño de las tiendas y la colocación de la ropa. Todo está pensado para representar a la marca líder de una industria multimillonaria.

En una sociedad basada en la imagen y las apariencias, la moda ha conseguido imponerse como uno de los bienes más consumido aunando la accesibilidad y la obsolescencia. Descrita como “moda rápida”, la fórmula dominante en la producción y consumo de ropa, ha convertido a la industria en éxito de ventas, pero también en una de las más contaminantes e insalubres.

OBSOLESCENCIA PROGRAMADA Y PRECARIZACIÓN CRIMINAL

En este escenario Inditex demuestra su maestría como incontestable líder del Fast Fashion. La empresa ha conseguido ser una de las multinacionales más rentables y una de las marcas más conocidas a nivel mundial, está en todas partes, vendiendo que la clave de su éxito está en sus bajos precios, el acceso a las últimas tendencias y un fuerte compromiso social. Detrás de todo esto hay una realidad muy diferente.

Las tragedias sucedidas en las fábricas de Bangladesh nos pusieron en sobre aviso de las barbaridades que eran capaz de hacer los magnates de la industria de la moda con tal de ganar dinero

Comprar, usar y tirar sería una buena definición para este negocio depredador, contaminante, colonial y patriarcal. El consumismo imperante y el low cost han hecho de su externalización y sus altos niveles de producción un grave problema a nivel ambiental, social y laboral. Las empresas han diseminado la cadena de producción por todo el mundo, ubicando sus talleres en países empobrecidos y en vías de desarrollo con una regulación ambiental y laboral prácticamente inexistente donde miles de mujeres son explotadas a “bajo coste”, poniendo en riesgo sus vidas y su salud con unas condiciones lamentables.

Las tragedias sucedidas en las fábricas de Bangladesh, conocidas como el caso Spectrum y Rana Plaza, nos pusieron en sobre aviso de las barbaridades que eran capaz de hacer los magnates de la industria de la moda con tal de ganar dinero. Siempre hemos percibido esa precarización como algo lejano y abstracto, si bien es cierto que si algo caracteriza al sector es su globalización y la explotación de mano de obra de los países más empobrecidos, podemos encontrar casos realmente alarmantes al lado de casa.

LA PRECARIZACIÓN LLEGÓ A CASA

La evolución del sector textil en Galiza ha sido notable y no siempre para bien. Documentales como Fíos Fora nos muestran los testimonios de las costureras que hicieron posible que el gigante Inditex esté donde está y a las que dejaron caer en el olvido y la miseria cuando tuvieron oportunidad. Pocas se atreven a hablar a pesar de los años transcurridos y parece que nos hemos esforzado por olvidar una realidad que poblaba nuestras ciudades y pueblos con multitud de talleres que daban trabajo a miles de gallegas.

De aquel tejido industrial apenas quedan unas pocas empresas auxiliares que sobreviven por su cercanía e inmediatez a la sede central de Inditex, pero que trabajan con un porcentaje ínfimo de toda la ropa que vende y distribuye la marca española. A diferencia de las mujeres que relatan su historia en Fíos Fora, no todos los empresarios que continúan surtiendo a Inditex cuentan con los mismos criterios éticos y no dudan en pisar a sus trabajadores para aumentar su trocito del pastel.

La labor sindical, como la exitosa huelga de las trabajadoras de Bershka, ha sido clave en la mayoría de estas empresas, que han mejorado sustancialmente sus condiciones laborales. En materia de salud laboral, han conseguido que se dejaran de utilizar gran cantidad de productos tóxicos que Inditex presumía de no utilizar. Sin embargo, la batalla contra quien no duda en aprovechar cualquier oportunidad para agrandar sus beneficios a costa de los trabajadores parece interminable. En algunas de estas empresas la labor sindical es impensable, las prácticas esclavistas de algunos de estos empresarios son propias de otros tiempos: gritos, amenazas, despidos y ausencia de derechos como las vacaciones suceden desde hace años al lado de la sede central de la multinacional.

CARIDAD, A CAMBIO DE PAGAR MENOS IMPUESTOS

Pero poco o nada afecta a las ventas ser la segunda industria más contaminante y mucho menos la esclavitud de la mano de obra que hay detrás, la política de Responsabilidad Social Corporativa se encarga de ello y aquí entra en juego la figura de Amancio Ortega. Titulares y publirreportajes semanales en los diarios más vendidos anunciando donaciones a la sanidad pública o su preocupación por el planeta firmando compromisos irreales de llegar a las cero emisiones en 2050.

Con este modelo de negocio no solo salen perdiendo los trabajadores que ven empeoradas sus condiciones laborales con el fin de enriquecer a toda costa a los capitalistas, sino toda la clase obrera.

No hacen grandes donaciones sino inversiones publicitarias. Los aparatos médicos, la construcción de residencias de mayores y escuelas infantiles van ligadas a la condición de que sean los poderes públicos que lo reciben los encargados de publicitar tal gesta y así dejar intocable la imagen de filántropo desinteresado del señor Amancio Ortega.

Lo cierto es que las grandes fortunas de este país se han convertido en una minoría peligrosa dedicada a precarizar a la clase trabajadora, mientras su dinero queda a buen recaudo del fisco

El objetivo de esta inversión es ganar dinero, aumentar sus ventas y de paso las de empresas donde son accionistas, a cambio reciben grandes descuentos tributarios. A Amancio Ortega no le interesa lo público, no le importa que tú puedas llevar a tus hijos a una escuela pública o que puedas recibir el tratamiento sanitario que necesitas, si le importara la facturación de las ventas online no la haría en Irlanda; si le importara no tendría una SICAV a través de la cual paga apenas un 1% de impuestos, mientras tú pagas bastante más y sufres los recortes en sanidad, educación y políticas sociales; si le importara pagaría sus impuestos en su país, ese que utiliza como reclamo publicitario, en lugar de llevárselo a paraísos fiscales.

Lo cierto es que las grandes fortunas de este país se han convertido en una minoría peligrosa dedicada a precarizar a la clase trabajadora, mientras su dinero queda a buen recaudo del fisco. Una desigualdad creciente que junto a las políticas de recortes y austeridad nos han dejado en una posición extremadamente vulnerable.

Un país democrático es aquel que apuesta por la igualdad y la justicia y para que esto sea posible es indispensable redistribuir la riqueza y apostar por lo público y lo común como punto de partida del programa ecosocialista que necesitamos.

¡No queremos su caridad, sino que paguen los ricos!

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