Maquilas: la gran fábrica de enfermas

La mayoría de trabajadoras de maquila viven en zonas empobrecidas, tienen pocos recursos económicos y no suelen pasar del bachillerato. Por eso, solo pueden optar a los trabajos no cualificados que se encuentran sobre todo en estas fábricas. Y por eso también, los salarios son mínimos.

Siempre hay que estar haciendo números para llegar al final de la quincena y si no alcanza, toca elegir: se almuerza algo al mediodía, o una cena frugal antes de irse a dormir. La mayoría no comen nada antes de ir al trabajo o tragan algo apresuradamente en el camino. Las que almuerzan en la fábrica se quejan del menú, mucha papa y frituras, carbohidratos para rendir.

Antonia Hinojos Hernández, a quien todos llaman Toñita, es una obrera de Ciudad Juárez, México. Está cansada de las burlas de los médicos de la maquiladora por su obesidad: “Yo a un médico le contesté: ¿Ustedes no son conscientes de la alimentación que nos dan en la maquila?, ¿de la postura en la que trabajamos? —recuerda Toñita— Deberían de estar conscientes pero no les conviene reconocer”.

La mayoría de las trabajadoras de las maquilas de Ciudad Juárez viven en la periferia. Para ir a trabajar se enfrentan a muchos riesgos por la violencia y la inseguridad. A inicios de la década de los 90, los feminicidios se incrementaron en esta zona. Por eso, cada vez que va a la maquila lo hace acompañada de un palo con clavos y una botella de agua congelada para defenderse.

Las trabajadoras aprenden a lidiar con el dolor. Algunas automedicándose o con pastillas que reciben de los doctores de las maquilas. El Ibuprofeno y el Paracetamol son parte de una larga lista de analgésicos que consumen.

Las horas de pie también afectan. Hay días que suman hasta 21 horas continuas, por los turnos dobles y las horas extra. Muchas se quedan a la fuerza, para alcanzar la elevada meta de producción exigida. Un trabajo que no pueden rechazar por su precaria situación económica.

Claudia María Delgado sufre una afonía permanente acompañada de tos seca. Ella cree que es por el polvo de las fibras textiles. Tiene 38 años, es madre soltera y tiene dos hijos. Desde hace más de 10 años trabaja en una maquila de la zona franca de Export Salva, en Santa Ana, departamento de El Salvador. Por la intensidad de la jornada laboral también ha desarrollado problemas de espalda. Todavía no le han diagnosticado ninguna discapacidad, aunque hace poco se hizo unos exámenes. En el trabajo les dan unas mascarillas de protección, pero Claudia dice que son incómodas, de mala calidad y por eso prefiere no usarlas.

En su línea de producción les toca coser 288 sudaderas por hora. Más de 2,500 al día. Si alcanzan esa meta, a cada trabajadora le dan un bono de 1.40 USD diarios. Para resistir ese ritmo de producción y no perder tiempo, ella aprendió a aguantar la sed durante el día y solo beber agua cuando llega a su casa por la noche. Así se evita ir al baño durante la jornada laboral.

Las trabajadoras salvadoreñas denuncian que los sanitarios de la fábrica tienen candado. Si necesitan ir a hacer sus necesidades, tienen que pedir la llave. Deben ser autorizadas primero, porque los supervisores no quieren que pierdan el tiempo. Además, si cometen errores en la producción, como una costura fuera de la pieza, o si se retrasan porque están cansadas, les hacen descuentos salariales. Por eso, las trabajadoras dicen que es común ver a sus compañeras llorando.

Magdalena Marcos Raimundo es trabajadora de la empresa Koa Modas, una maquila de capital coreano en Guatemala que ha sido denunciada ante el Ministerio de Trabajo en repetidas ocasiones por malos tratos. Ella, al igual que muchas otras compañeras que se han desplazado desde el interior del país, optó por alquilar un pequeño cuarto a unas cuadras de la fábrica, para evitar el gasto del transporte. Lo prohibitivo de los alquileres de la zona hace que una pequeña habitación donde cabe una cama imperial y poco más, ronde los 70 USD al mes, una tercera parte de su salario. Magdalena malvive en un espacio lleno de humedades, en el que el agua de lluvia y los animales se cuelan por cualquier hueco posible. Un ambiente dañino para una persona con problemas respiratorios.

Ella llegó de Nebaj, Quiché, hace 30 años, sola, cuando tenía 14. Lleva 20 en Koa Modas. Con timidez, cuenta cómo el trabajo en las maquilas le ha ido dejando secuelas. Magdalena ya no puede abrir su mano derecha. Su dolor es insufrible. La tiene siempre cerrada, hecha puño. Trabaja con una máquina de pretina, una máquina caliente —dice—. Los cambios de temperaturas le entumecieron la mano hasta dejarla así.

Se intentó contactar con el gerente de Koa Modas por vía telefónica para consultarle acerca de la situación de las mujeres trabajadoras y sobre el estado de las denuncias en contra de la fábrica. En las llamadas que se hicieron durante varios días, la secretaria se excusó en su nombre, alegando que no estaba disponible o no se encontraba en la oficina.

En Honduras, la situación es similar. “La problemática de las trabajadoras de la maquila es como una pandemia, las violaciones de los derechos humanos en general, las condiciones precarias de trabajo y especialmente lo referente a la salud”, dice María Luisa Regalado, coordinadora general de la Colectiva de Mujeres Hondureñas (Codemuh).

Esta organización tiene casi 30 años de trabajo en la atención integral a las obreras de las maquilas. Con sus investigaciones sobre enfermedades ocupacionales lograron visibilizar la problemática de los Trastornos Músculo Esqueléticos Ocupacionales (TMEO) ante el Instituto Hondureño del Seguro Social (IHSS). Según un estudio médico solicitado por Codemuh y realizado en más de 500 personas empleadas en maquilas, el 92 por ciento trabajan en jornadas de nueve a 12 horas diarias, y ocho de cada 10 realiza movimientos de elevada repetitividad.

En abril de 2017, fueron despedidas 24 personas, 19 de ellas mujeres, de la maquila Delta Apparel, en Villanueva, departamento de Cortés. La empresa utilizó los dictámenes médicos del IHSS para justificar los despidos debido a su condición de discapacidad adquirida por el trabajo en la maquila.

El ausente Seguro Social

Cuando las trabajadoras empiezan el trabajo en la maquila con un contrato indefinido, por ley, deben estar afiliadas al Seguro Social. Las empresas les descuentan quincenalmente un porcentaje del salario para pagar sus cuotas. El problema es que algunas de las maquilas retiran las cuotas a las trabajadoras pero no pagan las de todas.

A veces manejan dos listados de empleados: uno con el número real de trabajadores, y otro con un número reducido, que es el que presentan ante las autoridades, cuenta Maritza Velásquez, directora de la Asociación de Trabajadoras del Hogar, a Domicilio y de Maquila (Atrahdom), de Guatemala. Pero muchas no se dan cuenta hasta que requieren atención médica. Otras al jubilarse, después de años de trabajo y descuentos ilegales.

Las trabajadoras de Koa Modas, en Guatemala, acumulan denuncias sobre impago de cuotas al Seguro Social. Hasta ahora ninguna ha sido resuelta favorablemente. Zaily Janeth Mejía es una de las mujeres afectadas. Tiene 43 años y vive con dos de sus hijos en un pequeño cuarto de madera, en la parte trasera de una imprensa. Sus padres le ayudan a pagar el alquiler de una habitación con las paredes roídas por la humedad, en el que pedazos de cartón tapan huecos por los que se filtra la lluvia. A Zaily le atropelló una moto hace unos meses. Por eso lleva un cabestrillo en el brazo, ya afectado por una lesión en el tendón del hombro. Lleva más de cuatro meses suspendida sin recibir salario: la empresa no le paga y el Seguro Social tampoco, por no tener sus cuotas al día.

En el Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social (IGSS) son conscientes del problema pero admiten que no hay un mecanismo para evitarlo. El sistema únicamente señala infracciones cuando las compañías dejan de pagar las cuotas de los empleados inscritos al IGSS. Carlos Enrique Gómez Sánchez, de la dirección de recaudación, asegura que al menos un 20 por ciento de las empresas caen en esta práctica.

Además, hay otro problema común: los Seguros Sociales no reconocen o no dan suficiente seguimiento a las incapacidades laborales en las maquilas. En el Instituto Salvadoreño del Seguro Social (ISSS) solo hay 10 doctores especializados en Medicina del Trabajo, que son los que diagnostican y tratan estas enfermedades. Además, hace falta un mejor monitoreo, porque las 40 clínicas del Seguro Social en las maquilas de todo el país no brindan un registro epidemiológico a las oficinas centrales, reconoce el doctor Walter Mayén, especialista de medicina del trabajo del ISSS.

Mayén afirma que la sordera, los trastornos musculoesqueléticos y las infecciones de las vías urinarias son los principales motivos de consulta, según su experiencia. “Como las condiciones que causan la enfermedad no tienen nada que ver con su cuerpo, sino con las condiciones de trabajo, vuelven a lastimarse. Se van operando una vez, dos veces y van lesionándose gradualmente”.

Homero Fuentes es el director de la Comisión de Verificación de Códigos de Conducta (Coverco) de Guatemala, una entidad privada que lleva 20 años documentando las violaciones de derechos humanos y laborales en maquilas. Coverco hace inspecciones para empresas y organizaciones internacionales en fábricas de Guatemala, México, El Salvador y Honduras. La falta de datos sobre enfermedades ocupacionales es un problema: “Hay una falta de estadísticas —resalta Fuentes, en base a su experiencia—. Al Estado no le da la gana documentar los casos de discapacidades y enfermedades de mujeres y de considerarlas enfermedades profesionales”.

En las propias maquilas tampoco hay interés por tratar en profundidad estos problemas de salud. Cuando una trabajadora experimenta algún malestar, es remitida a la clínica de la fábrica. Pero si piden permiso para pasar a consulta suelen ser regañadas, obviadas o despedidas, denuncian las operarias de maquila, como le sucedió a Imelda en El Salvador, cuando le diagnosticaron artritis y luego la echaron.

En México hay un lugar donde las mujeres de las maquilas reciben terapia. Es el Centro de Rehabilitación Integral Física (CRIF) de Ciudad Juárez donde está el 70 por ciento de las maquiladoras del país según datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI).

Maquilas: la gran fábrica de enfermas

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